Modelling school travel mode choice – the case of hanoi, vietnam

  • Minh Hieu Nguyen

    University of Transport and Communications, No 3 Cau Giay Street, Hanoi, Vietnam
Từ khóa: COVID-19, active transport, cycling, Hanoi, school closure, mode choice.

Tóm tắt

The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in adopting massively social distancing measures to tame the human-to-human transmission of the new coronavirus and protect public health. These intervention policies have caused changes in travel behavior, thereby expressing a need to update profiles of factors associated with mode choice. To respond to this research gap in part, this current study aims to model children’s mode decisions for school trips in the post-pandemic time in Hanoi. As regards mode usage, cycling is the main mode of active transport with a share at 23.3%, doubling the rate of 11% for walking. The dominant mode of traveling to school is the motorized modes (i.e., cars and motorcycles) with a proportion of 60%, meanwhile, school buses account for only 6.2%. As regards the determinants, when growing up, children tend to shift from being driven to traveling actively. The availability of cars increases the likelihood of using other modes compared to cycling. An opposite association is seen for the availability of bicycles. The flexibility in terms of a mother’s job is involved in a higher possibility of being driven for a child. A home-school distance less than 1 km is more suitable for walking compared to cycling; however, an inverse relationship is witnessed for a distance between 1 and 2 km. A distance over 2 km is more appropriate for motorized modes and school buses. To promote active transport to school, children’s travel demand should be taken transport planning into consideration. Developing cycling and walking facilities is essential, especially in urban districts. Additionally, limiting the use of private motorized modes would be useful.

Tài liệu tham khảo

[1]. A. Fyhri et al., Children’s active travel and independent mobility in four countries: Development, social contributing trends and measures, Transport Policy, 18 (2011) 703–710.
[2]. L. Grize et al., Trend in active transportation to school among Swiss school children and its associated factors: three cross-sectional surveys 1994, 2000 and 2005, Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 7 (2010) 28.
[3]. K. Witten et al., New Zealand parents’ understandings of the intergenerational decline in children’s independent outdoor play and active travel, Children’s Geographies, 11 (2013) 215–229.
[4]. N. C. McDonald, Active transportation to school: trends among U.S. schoolchildren, 1969-2001, Am J Prev Med, 32 (2007) 509–516.
[5]. G. E. J. Faulkner et al., Active school transport, physical activity levels and body weight of children and youth: A systematic review, Preventive Medicine, 48 (2009) 3–8.
[6]. J. Scheiner, School trips in Germany: Gendered escorting practices, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 94 (2016) 76–92.
[7]. M. C. R. Lopez, Y. D. Wong, Children’s active trips to school: a review and analysis, International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 9 (2017) 79–95.
[8]. A. Carver et al., How are the built environment and household travel characteristics associated with children’s active transport in Melbourne, Australia?, Journal of Transport & Health, 12 (2019) 115–129.
[9]. K. Y. K. Leung, B. P. Y. Loo, Determinants of children’s active travel to school: A case study in Hong Kong, Travel Behaviour and Society, 21 (2020) 79–89.
[10]. A. Siiba, Active travel to school: Understanding the Ghanaian context of the underlying driving factors and the implications for transport planning, Journal of Transport & Health, 18 (2020) 100869.
[11]. D. Pojani, K. Boussauw, Keep the children walking: active school travel in Tirana, Albania, Journal of Transport Geography, 38 (2014) 55–65.
[12]. N. Singh, V. Vasudevan, Understanding school trip mode choice – The case of Kanpur (India), Journal of Transport Geography, 66 (2018) 283–290.
[13]. I. N. Sener et al., An examination of children’s school travel: A focus on active travel and parental effects, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 123 (2019) 24–34.
[14]. A. K. Yarlagadda, S. Srinivasan, Modeling children’s school travel mode and parental escort decisions, Transportation, 35 (2008) 201–218.
[15]. WHO, Timeline: WHO’s COVID-19 response, 2020. (accessed Oct. 01, 2020).
[16]. J. De Vos, The effect of COVID-19 and subsequent social distancing on travel behavior, Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 5 (2020) 100121.
[17]. S. J. Barnes, Information management research and practice in the post-COVID-19 world, International Journal of Information Management, 55 (2020) 102175.
[18]. UNICEF, What will a return to school during COVID-19 look like?, 2020. (accessed Oct. 01, 2020).
[19]. CNN, How Vietnam managed to keep its coronavirus death toll at zero, 2020.
[20]. M. H. Nguyen, Factors influencing home-based telework in Hanoi (Vietnam) during and after the COVID-19 era, Transportation, (2021).
[21]. T. V. Nguyen et al., In the interest of public safety: rapid response to the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam, BMJ Global Health, 6.1 (2021) e004100.
[22]. UNICEF, COVID-19 and School Closures: One year of education disruption, (2021) [Online]. Available:
[23]. A. Leung, T. P. L. Le, Factors associated with adolescent active travel: A perceptive and mobility culture approach – Insights from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 123 (2019) 54–67.
[24]. N. H. H. D. Trang et al., Active Commuting to School Among Adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Change and Predictors in a Longitudinal Study, 2004 to 2009, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42 (2012) 120–128.
[25]. S. Li, P. Zhao, The determinants of commuting mode choice among school children in Beijing, Journal of Transport Geography, 46 (2015) 112–121.
[26]. N. C. McDonald, Children’s mode choice for the school trip: the role of distance and school location in walking to school, Transportation, 35 (2008) 23–35.
[27]. D. T. Huynh, J. Gomez-Ibañez, Vietnam, in The Urban Transport Crisis in Emerging Economies, D. Pojani and D. Stead, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, (2017) 267–282.
[28]. D. Huynh, Making Megacities in Asia: Comparing National Economic Development Trajectories. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2020.
[29]. M. H. Nguyen et al., Impediments to the bus rapid transit implementation in developing countries – a typical evidence from Hanoi, International Journal of Urban Sciences, 23 (2019) 464–483.
[30]. M. H. Nguyen, D. Pojani, Why Do Some BRT Systems in the Global South Fail to Perform Or Expand?, in Preparing for the New Era of Transport Policies: Learning from Experience, First., vol. 1, Y. Shiftan and M. Kamargianni, Eds. ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS, (2018) 35–61.
[31]. D. Potoglou and B. Arslangulova, Factors influencing active travel to primary and secondary schools in Wales, Transportation Planning and Technology, 40 (2017) 80–99.
[32]. M. Ben-Akiva, S. R. Lerman, Discrete Choice Analysis: Theory and Application to Travel Demand, 1st Edition. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 1985.
[33]. R. M. O’brien, A Caution Regarding Rules of Thumb for Variance Inflation Factors, Qual Quant, 41 (2007) 673–690.
[34]. OECD, OECD Urban Policy Reviews: Viet Nam. OECD Publishing, 2018.

Tải xuống

Chưa có dữ liệu thống kê